Cayonu is an archeological center which reflects transition to settled life in the best way. It is located in Sesverenpinar (Hilar) Village, 7 km southeast of the county. Cayonu, is one of the oldest examples of grain and domestication related to village life and is an important step to today’s civilization. Cayonu, being one of the most important examples in Turkey during Neolithic Era, attracts attention with domestication dog as wells as taking wheat into agriculture for the first time. According to information we have gathered from Diyarbakir Archeological Museum, it stands out with intense past, which reaches back to B.C. 8750. Knitted circular houses, belonging to Neolithic Era, and plain sheds have been discovered as the result of the excavations. The most glorious structure discovered during the excavation is the monumental structure, which is the 10 m large, surface shine with straightening and known as “Saltasli Structure”. Cayonu, is also the Neolithic Era settlement in which the most human skeletons have been found. 605 skeletons have been found. Besides, signs of brain surgery have been seen at one of the head skulls. These findings can be accepted as proof to how far the people of Cayonu have gone in the field of medicine. One another characteristic of Cayonu’ folks are the fact that they were very keen on decorations. First dwellers of the village, wore circular and tear shaped beads they made out of snail shells they found in sweat water resources, from the animals’ front sharp teeth, and from the molluscs they found from the surroundings. Within time they shaped stones. Variety and colorfulness of the stones in the surroundings have reflected to beads as well. Having the necessary mine around made it easier for them to get better in mining. They had shaped the natural copper they found in the surrounding copper beds and produced things like sharp, beads, and plates. It can be understood that they had a skill far beyond using copper as stone from how they first warmed then shaped copper. Cayonu is named as “the key settlement” due to its architecture as well as rich findings of various qualities, and reflecting the regions it had effected and been effected by in the best way.